hand with a surgical glove holding an injection

The Basics of PT-141 (Bremelanotide): Benefits, Uses, Side Effects

Bremelanotide, another name for PT-141, is a synthetic peptide made to help treat low sexual desire in women and ED in men. The peptide is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which regulates various physiological processes in the body, such as appetite, immune function, and sexual behavior.1

PT-141 is a relatively new treatment option that is being studied to determine how well it works and what side effects it might have. Let’s dive into understanding PT-141, its uses, benefits, and side effects to help individuals make informed decisions about its use.

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Potential benefits of PT-141

PT-141 is a synthetic peptide that stimulates melanocortin receptors in the brain. While PT-141 is still being studied, it has shown some promise as a potential treatment for sexual dysfunction and other conditions. PT-141 can be injected under the skin or breathed in through the nose. It starts to work quickly, usually within an hour.

man looking at a woman with desire

One potential benefit of PT-141 is its ability to increase sexual desire and arousal in both men and women. Another study looked at PT-141 in premenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder and found that it improved sexual desire.2

Several factors, such as mental health problems, underlying medical conditions, and certain medications, can cause ED. Even though there are several treatments for ED, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), not all men will respond to them, or they may experience serious side effects.3

PT-141 has been studied as a potential alternative treatment option for ED.4 It is a melanocortin receptor agonist that works by stimulating the release of nitric oxide. This chemical helps to relax the smooth muscles in the penis and increases blood flow. This increased blood flow can help to improve erectile function in men with ED.5

It is one of the few solutions that have undergone clinical trials to determine its effectiveness at treating sexual dysfunction in both men and women. The results from phase II clinical trials have been promising and may support the use of PT-141 as a solution for ED.

It’s important to remember that PT-141’s possible benefits are still being evaluated, and more research is needed to determine how well it works and if it is safe to use long-term. With that said, it is always best to consult your doctor before undergoing any treatment.

The main focus of administering PT-141 for sexual dysfunction is with women, as that is where a majority of the results have been found. While its effect on men has been studied, PT-141 is primarily indicated toward women.

Nevertheless, studies support both sides of the coin, as sexual dysfunction is commonly found in both men and women. Those experiencing low sexual desire have many treatment options available to them, but PT-141 tends to be seen as a more health-conscious solution compared to other treatments.

PT-141 moves through the body as an antagonist to melanocortin receptors. It also includes different potencies, which are MC1R, MC4R, MC3R, MC5R, and MC2R. Although this aspect is well understood, the actual mechanism of action that improves sexual dysfunction is still under extensive research. However, some melanocortin receptors are found in the central nervous system, which can lead to a direct improvement in sexual dysfunction.

Benefits Beyond Sexual Health

Due to the effects on various melanocortin receptors, there are other potential health benefits related to PT-141. MC3R and MC4R receptors are located in the hypothalamus. This relationship has a direct correlation to food intake and energy homeostasis. Much more research is needed to create effective treatments, but this has led many medical professionals to consider PT-141 as a weight management solution. PT-141 is also being studied for its potential in cancer prevention.

As research continues, PT-141 continues to impress experts as its list of potential applications expands. No matter the treatment plan, its efficacy is heavily reliant on proper dosage and administration.

Administration and Dosage

At this time, subcutaneous injections are the most common form of administration for PT-141. You can expect medical professionals to work on other forms of administration for widespread adoption, but injections are the only reputable method for now.

In regard to dosage, it’s advised that only one injection be taken within a 24-hour window. Moreover, patients should take no more than eight injections within a month. Dosing is bound to vary between each patient, but there are some general guidelines doctors will follow. Those with hypoactive sexual desire disorder should take a 1.75mg injection at least 45 minutes before expected sexual activity.

The effects of PT-141 can take anywhere from 45 minutes to two hours to be present, and they can last anywhere from roughly two to four hours after administration. It’s also important to note that the biological half-life of PT-141 is 2.7 hours.

Safety and Regulation

It was only a few years ago that the FDA approved PT-141 for female hypoactive sexual desire. Research is still ongoing, and new findings could potentially change the course of the peptide’s future developments. Researchers need to understand the full scope of the pros and cons before PT-141 is a widely accepted treatment option to ensure patient safety.

Of course, the FDA only considers the United States. For PT-141 to be commercially available on a global scale, cooperation from countries all over the world regarding research and integration will be required.

When it comes to treating sexual dysfunction, patients in the US will need a prescription to make use of bremelanotide. From another angle, there are varying versions of PT-141 that you can find online, but these are for research purposes only and are not regulated by the FDA.

Sourcing your own PT-141 online comes with many risks. Considering these are not approved to be used for medical treatments, it’s recommended that you avoid them entirely. This is also why regulations and compliance are so important.

Interactions With Other Medications

The drug interactions you should be aware of are pretty straightforward. Before taking PT-141, make sure to tell your doctor if you’re taking any of the following medications.

  • Pain medication
  • Antibiotics
  • Naltrexone
  • Vitamins and herbal products

Your doctor will know of other prescription and over-the-counter medications that should not be mixed with PT-141. In the event you find out PT-141 isn’t an option for you, there are many other effective treatments for sexual disorders.

Alternative Treatments and Considerations

One of the biggest selling points surrounding PT-141 is the fact that it comes with very few side effects compared to other popular sexual dysfunction treatments. It isn’t perfect by any means, but many traditional medications and treatments come with many adverse health effects.

Medication is not always the entire solution, and this is especially true when it comes to sexual health. In conjunction with PT-141, many people seek counseling or a change in lifestyle factors to help improve their sexual disorders. A lot of this can be a combination of physical and mental stressors.

With the many nuances that come with treating one’s health, it’s important to get support that works in your best interest. That’s exactly what we’ve created at Concierge MD. We are ready to provide the medical expertise you need to address sexual dysfunction in the long term. Feel free to reach out to us to learn more about how we can help you get your health back on track.

Common side effects of PT-141

As with any medication, PT-141 can cause side effects in some people.6 The most commonly reported side effects of PT-141 use are:

A feeling of warmth, redness, or a tingly sensation in the skin, is caused by the dilation of blood vessels in the skin. Flushing is a common side effect of PT-141 and is usually mild to moderate in severity, but it can be more severe in some people.

Pain or pressure in the head is a common side effect of many medications, including PT-141. These headaches are usually mild to moderate and go away on their own within a few hours.

A feeling of discomfort or queasiness in the stomach can be a side effect of PT-141. Most cases of nausea are mild to moderate and usually go away on their own within a few hours.

Redness, itching, or pain at the injection site is a common side effect of PT-141. Most of the time, this irritation is mild to moderate and goes away in a few hours.

Less common side effects of PT-141

Even though PT-141 is generally well-tolerated, it is important to remember that how often and how bad these side effects are can vary from person to person. People may sometimes have more serious side effects, such as vomiting, blurry vision, and dizziness. It’s important to talk to a doctor immediately if you notice any of them.

Long-term effects of PT-141

Because PT-141 is a relatively new treatment option, there is currently limited data available on the long-term effects of PT-141 use. Before starting treatment, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the possible risks and benefits of using PT-141. It is also important to take medicine exactly as your doctor tells you to and immediately tell your doctor if you have any side effects.

Final thoughts

PT-141 is a man-made peptide that has shown a lot of promise as a possible treatment for sexual dysfunction. Even though PT-141 is usually well tolerated, it can cause side effects in some people, such as flushing, headaches, nausea, irritation, redness at the injection site, and, less often, vomiting, blurred vision, and dizziness. Little is currently known about PT-141’s long-term effects, so long-term use should be cautiously approached, especially in people with health issues.

Ultimately, it is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of PT-141 use with a healthcare provider and to weigh the costs and benefits of treatment before making a decision. With more research and study, PT-141 could become an even more promising treatment for people with sexual dysfunction and other similar conditions.


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[1] PT-141: a melanocortin agonist for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Molinoff PB.

[2] An effect on the subjective sexual response in premenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder by bremelanotide (PT-141), a melanocortin receptor agonist. Diamond LE.

[3] Comparative effectiveness and safety of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Yuan J.

[4] Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to Viagra. Rosen RC.

[5] Melanocortins in the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunction. Shadiack AM.

[6] Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Bremelanotide for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Simon JA.

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