hand with a surgical glove holding an injection

The Basics of PT-141 (Bremelanotide): Benefits, Uses, Side Effects

hand with a surgical glove holding an injection

Bremelanotide, another name for PT-141, is a synthetic peptide made to help treat low sexual desire in women and ED in men. The peptide is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which regulates various physiological processes in the body, such as appetite, immune function, and sexual behavior.1

PT-141 is a relatively new treatment option that is being studied to determine how well it works and what side effects it might have. Let’s dive into understanding PT-141, its uses, benefits, and side effects to help individuals make informed decisions about its use.

Potential benefits of PT-141

PT-141 is a synthetic peptide that stimulates melanocortin receptors in the brain. While PT-141 is still being studied, it has shown some promise as a potential treatment for sexual dysfunction and other conditions. PT-141 can be injected under the skin or breathed in through the nose. It starts to work quickly, usually within an hour.

man looking at a woman with desire

Increased sexual desire

One potential benefit of PT-141 is its ability to increase sexual desire and arousal in both men and women. Another study looked at PT-141 in premenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder and found that it improved sexual desire.2


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Treating ED

Several factors, such as mental health problems, underlying medical conditions, and certain medications, can cause ED. Even though there are several treatments for ED, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), not all men will respond to them, or they may experience serious side effects.3

man sitting near a the coast having a headache

PT-141 has been studied as a potential alternative treatment option for ED.4 It is a melanocortin receptor agonist that works by stimulating the release of nitric oxide. This chemical helps to relax the smooth muscles in the penis and increases blood flow. This increased blood flow can help to improve erectile function in men with ED.5

It is one of the few solutions that have undergone clinical trials to determine its effectiveness at treating sexual dysfunction in both men and women. The results from phase II clinical trials have been promising and may support the use of PT-141 as a solution for ED.

It’s important to remember that PT-141’s possible benefits are still being evaluated, and more research is needed to determine how well it works and if it is safe to use long-term. With that said, it is always best to consult your doctor before undergoing any treatment.

Common side effects of PT-141

As with any medication, PT-141 can cause side effects in some people.6 The most commonly reported side effects of PT-141 use are:


A feeling of warmth, redness, or a tingly sensation in the skin, is caused by the dilation of blood vessels in the skin. Flushing is a common side effect of PT-141 and is usually mild to moderate in severity, but it can be more severe in some people.


Pain or pressure in the head is a common side effect of many medications, including PT-141.

person holding his head in confusion

These headaches are usually mild to moderate and go away on their own within a few hours.


A feeling of discomfort or queasiness in the stomach can be a side effect of PT-141. Most cases of nausea are mild to moderate and usually go away on their own within a few hours.

Skin irritation

Redness, itching, or pain at the injection site is a common side effect of PT-141.

A woman holding her tummy in pain while having inflammatory bowel disease.

Most of the time, this irritation is mild to moderate and goes away in a few hours.

Less common side effects of PT-141

Even though PT-141 is generally well-tolerated, it is important to remember that how often and how bad these side effects are can vary from person to person. People may sometimes have more serious side effects, such as vomiting, blurry vision, and dizziness. It’s important to talk to a doctor immediately if you notice any of them.

Long-term effects of PT-141

Because PT-141 is a relatively new treatment option, there is currently limited data available on the long-term effects of PT-141 use. Before starting treatment, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the possible risks and benefits of using PT-141. It is also important to take medicine exactly as your doctor tells you to and immediately tell your doctor if you have any side effects.

Final thoughts

PT-141 is a man-made peptide that has shown a lot of promise as a possible treatment for sexual dysfunction. Even though PT-141 is usually well tolerated, it can cause side effects in some people, such as flushing, headaches, nausea, irritation, redness at the injection site, and, less often, vomiting, blurred vision, and dizziness. Little is currently known about PT-141’s long-term effects, so long-term use should be cautiously approached, especially in people with health issues.

Ultimately, it is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of PT-141 use with a healthcare provider and to weigh the costs and benefits of treatment before making a decision. With more research and study, PT-141 could become an even more promising treatment for people with sexual dysfunction and other similar conditions.

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[1] PT-141: a melanocortin agonist for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Molinoff PB.

[2] An effect on the subjective sexual response in premenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder by bremelanotide (PT-141), a melanocortin receptor agonist. Diamond LE.

[3] Comparative effectiveness and safety of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Yuan J.

[4] Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to Viagra. Rosen RC.

[5] Melanocortins in the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunction. Shadiack AM.

[6] Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Bremelanotide for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Simon JA.

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